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birch (Betula)
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Eriocraniidae (May to July)
1 Mine begins well away from leaf edge, with a narrow gallery containing linear frass.
This feature normally remaining visible when absorbed in the later blotch
  Mine begins at or near leaf edge. A short length of feeding, if present, widens abruptly
into a blotch
2 Early gallery, in centre of leaf, absorbed by an elongate oval blotch, leading to a large
blotch on leaf edge. Larval feeding starts in May. Final instar larva white, with pale
brown head and darker mouth parts, lateral projections on first abdominal segment
Eriocrania salopiella 10
  Early gallery, in centre of leaf, somewhat angular and absorbed by narrow angular
blotch leading to a larger blotch on leaf edge. Larval feeding starts in June. Final instar
larva white, head brown with black lateral edges. On the prothorax (dorsal surface) are
two cloudy brown spots [6-8]
Eriocrania sparrmannella 9
3 The blotch, on the edge of the leaf, contains more than one, usually two or three pale
watery-white larvae [5]
Eriocrania cicatricella 11
  The blotch contains only a single larva 4
4 Larva dark grey [4-5] Eriocrania sangii 12
  Larva whitish 5
5 Larva (final instar) with pale brown head. Lateral projections on first abdominal
segment [4-5]
Eriocrania semipurpurella 13
  Larva (final instar) with dark brown head. The posterior points of the head-capsule show as two black spots. Lateral projections on second abdominal segment [4-5] Eriocrania unimaculella 8
1 Mine forming a blotch 2
  Mine forming a gallery 3
2 Blotch with a conspicuous brown central spot [8-10] Ectoedemia occultella 34
  Blotch without such a spot; but with the earlier contorted gallery in one corner [7-9] Ectoedemia minimella 35
3 Frass dispersed 4
  Frass linear 5
4 Mine starting from a brown spot; frass green without clear margins, turning brown with age [6-7+9-10] Stigmella continuella 64
  Mine not starting from a brown spot; frass coiled, black or brown, leaving narrow clear margins [7-10] Stigmella sakhalinella 113
5 Mine long and angular with narrow linear frass in its second half 6
  Mine shorter and more contorted; frass broken linear and thicker 7
6 First fourth of mine filled with cloudy green frass [6-7] Stigmella lapponica 116
  Frass black and linear throughout the mine [7-8] Stigmella confusella 117
7 Mine much contorted at the start, sides of mine scalloped, scallops are usually free of frass; larva yellow with pale brown head and without dark ventral spots; seldom gregarious [8-11]
Stigmella luteella 112
  Mine less contorted at the start, mine edges more or less parallel; larva yellow with dark brown head and a chain of dark ventral spots; frequently gregarious [7+9] Stigmella betulicola 110
 Mine starts as a linear gallery expanding into a blotch. When full grown larva cut out an oval hole about 4mm long [7-4] Phylloporia bistrigella 128
 Mine in pith of twig. When almost fully grown larva enters petiole of a leaf and then
into midrib, it then cuts out an oval hole 5 x 2mm in the blade of the leaf [7-8]
Heliozela hammoniella 157
 Mine a long sinuous gallery, often whitish in appearance and often crossing midrib. The egg is laid inside the leaf being injected through the epidermal layer. This feature helps to distinguish it from a Nepticulid mine where the egg is laid on the surface of the leaf [5+7+9-10] Lyonetia clerkella 263
  Mine narrow, often contorted at first, later following a vein, final chamber often at right angle to previous mine, frass filling mine. Later the larva eats out windows from either side of leaf [8] Bucculatrix demaryella 276
1 Mine on upperside of leaf 2
  Mine on underside of leaf 3
2 Mine occupying most of the leaf which eventually almost closes over it; larva mines throughout [7+9-10] Phyllonorycter corylifoliella f. betulae 332
  Mine small, less than 12mm long; larva feeds later in a rolled leaf [5+7] Caloptilia betulicola 283
3 Mine with lower cuticle brown; larva feeds later in a rolled or folded leaf 4
  Mine with lower cuticle greenish, turning brown with age ; larva mines throughout 7
4 Larva completes growth in a folded leaf edge 5
  Larva completes growth in a rolled leaf 6
5 Bivoltine, feeding June and August to September [6+8-9] Parornix betulae 301
  Univoltine, feeding July to August [7-8] Parornix loganella 300
6 Final leaf-roll longitudinal [7-8] Caloptilia populetorum 281
  Final leaf-roll transverse [5+7] Caloptilia betulicola 283
7 Mine 15-20mm long; lower epidermis with 7-12 folds [9-10] Phyllonorycter cavella 338
  Mine 10-15mm long; lower epidermis with 1-6 fold 8
8 Mine almost exclusively on seeding birches, less than one metre tall, larva with dark brown head; pupa without a cocoon [7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter anderidae 347
  Mine on seeding or mature birches, larva with light brown head; pupa in a cocoon 9
9 Mine with several folds which may appear as a single fold, larva pale yellowish green turning yellow before pupation, head pale brown [7+9-10]
Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella 353
  Mine with strong central fold, larva body yellow, anterior segments opaque whitish yellow, head brown. Very rare on this host [7+10] Phyllonorycter messaniella 321

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