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Phytomyza ilicis Curtis, 1846
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the mine is green intially

Food Plant: Ilex (Holly)

Mine: Univoltine - Summer to Spring

Pupa: The pupa forms inside the mine.

Notes: Initially in mid-rib then upper surface blotch. Only miner on Holly. Widespread throughout. The early mine is green (as shown). The oviposition scars can be seen on the midrib (underside of the leaf) for this species. Occasionally long thin mines (reminiscent of Lyonetia clerkella) are seen - Hering (1957) thought they were due to parasitism of the ilicis larva, but research by Ellis (2000) indicated that the cause was crushing of the larva by callus formation before it was able to form a blotch. Sometimes a larva will break free from this thin gallery and form a blotch (Ellis, pers. comm).

Data: 15.iii.2006, Fleet, Hants, VC12

Image:© Rob Edmunds

Recording Grade: 1

Ellis,WN (2000) -Biological notes on the holly leaf miner, Phytomyza ilicis (Diptera: Agromyzidae). – Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam 60: 165-170.
Hering, M (1957) - Bestimmungstabellen der Blattminen von Europa.
Lewis, T & Taylor, LR (1967)- Introduction to experimental ecology: i-xi. 1-401. Academic Press, London.
Miall, LC & Taylor LH (1907) - The Structure and life-history of the Holly Fly -Transactions of the entomological Society of London 1907(2): 259-283
Robbins, J (1990) - A Provisional Atlas of The Leaf Miners of Warwickshire.
Spencer, K A (1976) - The Agromyzidae of Fennoscandia and Denmark.
Spencer, K.A (1972) - "Diptera: Agromyzidae" Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, Royal Entomological Society of London.

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