Plant: Ilex (Holly)
- Summer to Spring
Pupa: The pupa
forms inside the mine.
in mid-rib then upper surface blotch. Only miner on Holly. Widespread
throughout. The early mine is green (as shown). The oviposition scars can
be seen on the midrib (underside of the leaf) for this species. Occasionally
long thin mines (reminiscent of Lyonetia
clerkella) are seen - Hering (1957) thought they were due
to parasitism of the ilicis larva, but research by Ellis (2000)
indicated that the cause was crushing of the larva by callus formation
before it was able to form a blotch. Sometimes a larva will break free
from this thin gallery and form a blotch (Ellis, pers. comm).
note the new recording grade, produced in response to the
findings of Papp & Cerný (Papp L & Cerný M,(2020),
Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Hungary. 4. Phytomyzinae III). They examined
adult specimens of
P.ilicis and discovered a second species. The May 2020 newsletter
of the National Agromyzidae Recording Scheme gives full details. A
of both the mine and the anterior spiracles of the puparium now need
to be recorded. It may also mean that the adult may be reared.
Warrington (2021) examined the adults given by Papp and Cerny and found
that they were in fact P.ilicis. There are at present just
two Holly leaf miners in Europe - P.ilicis and P.jucunda.
P.ilicis is the only species found at present in the UK. Any atypical
mines should be closely examined - in particular the anterior spiracles,
which would help differentiate species; those of P.ilicis are
short and closely spaced, with those of P.jucunda are longer
Fleet, Hants, VC12
Ellis,WN (2000) -Biological notes on the holly leaf miner, Phytomyza
ilicis (Diptera: Agromyzidae). – Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam
M (1957) - Bestimmungstabellen der Blattminen von Europa.
Lewis, T & Taylor, LR (1967)- Introduction to experimental ecology:
i-xi. 1-401. Academic Press, London.
LC & Taylor LH (1907) - The Structure and life-history of the Holly Fly
-Transactions of the entomological Society of London 1907(2): 259-283
Papp, L. and Cerný, M. (2020) - Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Hungary.
Volume 4. Phytomyzinae III.
J (1990) - A Provisional Atlas of The Leaf Miners of Warwickshire.
Rotheray, GE 2020) - Effects of tissue hardness
on larval feeding in the holly leaf miner Phytomyza ilicis Curtis
(Diptera:Agromyzidae), Dipterist's Digest 27 (2): 143-154
Spencer, K A (1976) - The Agromyzidae of Fennoscandia and Denmark.
Spencer, K.A (1972) - "Diptera: Agromyzidae" Handbooks for the Identification
of British Insects, Royal Entomological Society of London.
BP (2021) - Clarification on the status of Phytomyza ilicis Curtis
(Diptera, agromyzidae), Dipterist's Digest 28 (1): 89-93
Warrington, BP (2021) - Recording the Holly leaf miner Phytomyza ilicis
Curtis, 1846 - an Update, National Agromyzidae Recording scheme Newsltter,