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Phytomyza autumnalis Hering, 1957
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Food Plant: Centaurea montana (Perennial Cornflower), C.nigra (Common Knapweed), Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle), C.dissectum (Marsh Plume Thistle).C.palustre (Marsh Thistle), C.vulgare (Spear Thistle),

Mine: October-November

Notes: Forms a full depth, greenish, usually linear, mine which is usually upper surface and doubles back on itself. The pupa is metallic black and the anterior spiracles protrude through the lower epidermis (as shown). The mines of P.spinaciae are identical to those of P.autumnalis and can only be separated by larval and puparium features. The puparium of P.spinaciae is white whereas P.autumnalis is black - of course, P.spinaciae could be parasitised causing it to blacken. So recording P.autumnalis based on a black puparium isn’t safe, so it is best to rear. Mine shown on Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle).

Data: 18.x.2017(top); 17.x.2017(bottom two), Downham Market, Norfolk, VC28

Image:© Rob Edmunds

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